Journalism in the Public Interest

Breaking Down the Mortgage Settlement: How Far Does $26 Billion Go?

How much will homeowners be helped by the settlement? We do the numbers.



The big bank settlement over mortgage servicing abuses was finalized last week, detailing the agreement’s actual terms.

Bank of America, Citigroup, Ally Financial (formerly GMAC) and JPMorgan Chase are on the hook for billions, which will be divvied up among penalties paid to the federal and state governments, direct payments to homeowners wrongfully foreclosed upon, and credits to the banks for providing “consumer relief.” (Read the government’s complaint and the banks’ consent judgment.)

Here’s a breakdown of key settlement numbers, showing where the money is going and how much help it will really provide for homeowners.

$1.4 billion: total direct payments from the settlement to homeowners who were wrongfully foreclosed upon between 2008 and 2011.

750,000: foreclosed homeowners expected to qualify.

$2,000: estimated average payout.

3.8 million: total foreclosures between 2008 and 2011.

25 percent: expected increase in foreclosures in 2012. That would mean about 1 million foreclosures, up from 804,000 last year, partly as a result of banks clearing a backlog held up by the settlement proceedings.

$3 billion: total for which banks can be credited for offering refinancing to underwater homeowners who owe more than their homes are worth. (There are questions about exactly how the credits will work and why the banks are being given incentives rather than punishment.)

$17 billion: total from the settlement that banks can be credited for offering loan modification ($10 billion) and other forms of “consumer relief” ($7 billion) for underwater borrowers — counted separately from the refinancing incentives.

11.1 millionunderwater mortgages in the U.S.

$717 billion: negative equity from those underwater mortgages.

3 million: estimated underwater mortgages owned or guaranteed by government-controlled Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, which are not covered by the settlement.

5 percent: portion of the country’s underwater mortgages that might qualify for modification under the settlement, according to a Brookings Institute estimate. (Officials have put the number closer to 10 percent.)

$10.9 billion: Bank of America's total outlay in the settlement, more than any other bank.

$2 billion: Bank of America's fourth-quarter 2011 profit.

$1 billion: settlement of allegations that Bank of America passed bad loans on to the Federal Housing Administration to insure. A government audit, made public with the settlement, showed similar patterns at other banks.

$6 billion: amount that the FHA paid in insurance claims on defaulted mortgages handled by the five banks between 2008 and 2010.

60-200: documents signed daily by different individual loan processors working for Bank of America, according to the government audit.

12-18 inches: height of the stacks of documents one Bank of America employee signed “without a review.”

$1 million: fine to be levied on the banks for each violation of the terms of the overall settlement, escalating to $5 million for repeat violations. (Exactly how fines will be tallied is still unclear.)

The most important numbers are missing:  Total gains from this financial terror campaign and total losses from reparations.  I can’t help but estimate an imbalance between the two.  And if fraud is a net win, it’ll happen again and again.

And again, there’s the nearly-obscene focus on underwater mortgages—people who merely have a bad investment—rather than people who were outright defrauded out of their homes or strong-armed into excessive debt.

Barry Schmittou

March 19, 2012, 1:46 p.m.

Many more dangerous crimes corporate crimes are not being prosecuted as seen in the Federal Court filing I’ve posted at :

This includes “Drug Murders Enabled By Wachovia Bank Laundering $378 Billion Dollars !!” Bank of America laundered $3 Billion of drug money from one branch, and no one was prosecuted.

JP Morgan Rigged Municipal Bids in 31 States !!

AIG, MetLife, Prudential, and Unum Insurance Have All Rigged Huge Bids To Increase Sales of Workers Comp or U.S. Title 29 Health Related Policies; No One Was Prosecuted !!!!”

JP Morgan received another agreement from the SEC where no one was prosecuted !!

Numerous Federal Judges have written that Doctors’ paid by Obama’s campaign contributors at MetLife endanger patients by ignoring Multiple Sclerosis, brain lesions, cardiac conditions of many disabled patients and a foot a new mother broke in five places !!

In the case of Wright verses Metlife U.S. Magistrate Judge Jennifer Guerm wrote these quotes :

“MetLife relied on clearly erroneous findings of fact in making its benefit determination. MetLife’s review of Plaintiff’s appeal consistently omitted or misrepresented relevant information in several ways.”

Many more quotes can be seen at :

Exhibit C of the first site I posted shows that MetLife and two of their executives gave Obama huge contributions and then signed the agreement where no one was prosecuted for rigging bids on these policies.

I asked the Court to stop MetLife from ignoring medical conditions. U.S. Magistrate Judge Bryant wrote to me saying the Court cannot stop these crimes because “the enforcement of such provisions is the exclusive prerogative of the Attorney General”

Obama’s DOL directors sent me letters from Washington 16 months ago saying it is their top priority to stop these violations, but they refuse to seek prosecution even though they know the patient can die while they wait for the Court ruling.

Obama said the following lie at the National Prayer meeting in February 2012 :

“When I talk about making sure insurance companies aren’t discriminating against those who are already sick I do it because I know that far too many neighbors in our country have been hurt and treated unfairly over the last few years, and I believe in God’s command to love thy neighbor as thyself. For me as a Christian, it also coincides with Jesus’s teaching to whom much is given much is expected”

On the first website I listed you will see how this is also happening to injured workers in America !!

WFAA – TV in Dallas Texas wrote :

“a remarkable number of Texans committed suicide because they could no longer endure the pain caused by their injuries and they had been repeatedly turned down for worker’s comp care.”

During the time period of the suicides AIG rigged huge bids to increase sales of Workers Comp policies. No one was prosecuted for the bid rigging and Obama’s DOL and DOJ will not investigate the suicides!!

Identical crimes are also being committed against severely injured War Zone Contractors.

Here are quotes from a ProPublica article :

“Workers fought long battles for medical care, including such things as prosthetic devices and treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. The Labor Department seldom took action to enforce the law. Labor officials can recommend cases for prosecution to the Justice Department–but have only done so once in the past two decades, according to Labor officials.”

Here’s a quote from a recent Bill Moyers transcript where Bill wrote :
“How did politics create a winner-take-all economy? This was an inside job, politically engineered by Wall Street and Washington working hand-in-hand, to turn the legend of Robin Hood on its head: giving to the rich and taking from everybody else. It’s all on the record.”

I believe all the evidence I’ve posted in this comment is related to the ProPublica article because the protection of so many corporate crimes is all very well planned and connected.

I have had cancer burned from one eye and am desperately trying to get someone to stop the destruction of so many lives. Please excuse redundancies on the website.

I have much more evidence about the drug money laundering that is seen at :

Except for the laundering most of the evidence on that site is redundant with the Court filing that is seen at :

That website has links to DOJ documents and campaign contributions.

I may not be able to respond to the usual attacks from Lovers of Obama and Bush and the corporations that own their souls. I believe the evidence stands for itself. Please pray that God will cause our leaders to stop enabling the destruction of so many lives.

Symphony Music

March 19, 2012, 9:36 p.m.

Barry, You probably have many points to make, many that may be valid.  Nevertheless, you need to find a friend to more succinctly identify your issues and their themes.

But I agree most strongly with John.  The prosecutors and regulators are missing the case that it is the non-defaulting homeowners that continue to pay excessively high interest rates on their loans that are being defrauded daily by the banks. There should be much more focus on this issue.

When I tried to get a HAMP, I did Not get suckered into sending in a reduced payment. I sent in full payment.

Wells Fargo received 4 months of my payments that they “did not apply to my loan” even though they were on time and full payment.

I called and asked them why they did not apply my payments to my loan(the lender was Fannie Mae) and Wells Fargo gave no definitive answer. When I asked the Wells Fargo Rep where my money was (4 months) she indicated it was in one of Wells Fargo’s “Money Accounts”.

They had also “dinged my credit” and prevented me from refinancing for a year. Wells Fargo used my Mortgage Payment for their own money making purpose, not sending the full Mortgage payment as a Mortgage Servicer to Fannie Mae.

It took my complaining to Wells Fargo to get my Credit history fixed and I never really knew if Wells Fargo sent the full monthly mortgage payments to the lender, Fannie Mae.

I bet they did not, just kept the money and my Principal was not reduced.

I terminated my relationship with Wells Fargo and re-financed with my credit Union. I will never do business nor will any of my family with the deceitful business practices and predatory operation of Wells Fargo.

Good to see Wells Fargo has been fined $4.3 Billion but that is not enough as they made $10 Billion in Profit in 2010.

Judging from the Bank of America fine, Wells Fargo and B of A were working a plan together to get paid with Mortgage Insurance and motivated to force people into Foreclosure along with the $1.4 Loan Guarantee money from TARP via the FDIC.

The Management of these Predatory banks knew what they were doing, they were pulling the strings.

We need tight regulation and need to break them up along with returning to law the Glass-Steagall Act os we can have the same protection from Predatory Lending like we had for 70 years before Rubin, Greenspan, Gramm, and Citibank whispered in Clinton;s ear to pass the Gramm-Leach-Biley law.

Hopefully, we will get another 70 years of protection from these Predators when the Glass-Steagall was in force.

Symphony Music

March 20, 2012, 6:49 a.m.

Mike, The way I understand it, Wells Fargo dinged your credit making a statement to the credit bureaus that suggested they owned your loan. However, it seems they did not own your loan.  They were just a Servicer.  As such, it seems that Wells Fargo misrepresented themselves and that the credit bureaus allowed the misrepresentations to occur by not asking Wells Fargo to actually give them the name of the party that actually owned your loan. I sense liability for the unintended consequences of fraudulent representation.

As to your other point, the bank’s supervised by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), all know that the best solution for their faulty documentation procedures and their possible liability under predatory lending laws and specific State laws regarding privacy and debt collection practices, is to encourage homeowners to refinance with others.  The process of refinancing allows the investors in the securitized Tranches to reap double benefits: 1) the profits from the higher yield associated with their initial tranche investment, and 2) the profits associated with the payback of their full principal when your loan is replaced with someone else’s money.

As Matt Taibbi, Reporter, already said that this was another bank bailout and nothing else.

Viola, Yes, this is another bank bailout.  Here is my list of “issue” errors that highlight the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency’s regulated banks’ problems:
A)  (Tranche B and C investors are the higher yield-desiring “investors” in securitization investments.)  Are politicians aware that their government loan programs are actually taking Tranche B and C investors out of an exposure Tranche B and C investors were originally eager to accept?  Government loan programs effectively double up on rewards to Tranche B and C investors: first, by the higher yield that they collect originally and, second, by the creation of a government loan program that substitutes their exposure with taxpayer capital.
B)  Did the banks notify regulators about how they shifted their mortgage customer relationship away from one with a regulated bank to one with an unnamed Special Purpose Vehicle and unnamed and unregulated accredited investors?  Are the regulators aware of the significance of the shift?  Standard consumers are all of a sudden negotiating with random accredited investors with no regulatory oversight.
C)  Will a State judge agree that the priority of the beneficiaries of Federal Agency bailouts should be the bank, its paid management, its shareholders, and then the consumers?  Or was it the banks’ obligation to address earlier the consumers’ stress at paying high interest rates?  When does the concept of “predatory” come into play?
D)  Did banks that originated loans record a liability to continue to provide mortgage loans at competitive interest rates to its clients as interest rates dropped?
a.  If already fully exposed, as banks say they are, are the banks just permitted to enforce their high interest rate collections as Servicers, or should banks have made new loans available at re-set interest rates plus a standard processing fee (The way it used to be done before 2008)?  How long are Households meant to wait before the subsidized loan savings from which banks benefited get shared with the banks clients?  When do predatory lending law restrictions come into play?
b.  Are banks initially chartered to serve a community as a special privilege granted by the State simply allowed to create new underwriting rules that conveniently allow them to collect high interest rates from classes of clients forever? 
c.  Is charging excess interest the correct thing to have done the minute after a bank accepted taxpayer subsidized advances from any taxpayer funded Federal agency?
d.  Are banks who act as servicers permitted to make statements about ownership that they must know are false ab initio, i.e.
i.  To initiate Notices of Acceleration that they know are based on false statements of ownership?
ii.  To hire third party notice providers under false pretences (i.e. hiring debt collection agencies on their representation that they own a Promissory Note that they do not own)?
iii.  To hire third party service providers to trespass on private property under false pretences (i.e. hiring “Lender Proceessing Services” to visit homeowners and drop “friendly” unsealed, no-return-address envelopes randomly on private property while “pretending to be inspecting whether the home is occupied) ?
iv.  To notify national credit bureaus when nothing is actually due to them (The bank is only a servicer, they own nothing).  Isn’t it only the Special Purpose Vehicle who owns the note who is allowed to notify a national credit bureau of any late payment, after it ascertains there is no dispute?
v.  To ignore complaints, disputes, or demands for restitution just because they interpret some documents and its stated obligation in only a self-serving manner? (i.e. banks are trying to redefine the dictionary meaning of the word “dispute.”)
vi.  To not disclose new fees they earn by providing loan modifications? (Where is their requirement to comply with the spirit of disclosure as required by HUD and its Settlement Statements?)

As Pro Publica has a wise decision to limit comments to 5,000 characters, but to continue with my list, did banks create a liability to the SEC, to their auditors, and to their regulators via a lapse in reporting by:
a.  Not acknowledging a responsibility for all their originated and securitized loans as they, the banking industry and each individual bank, remain proportionally the only parties permitted to interact directly with Households?
b.  Not acknowledging that foreclosure actions by their Servicers required each bank to “buy” ownership of non-paying loans before they could be permitted to initiate foreclosure action?
c.  Not acknowledging the amount of their excess charge reimbursement liability to Households by keeping large classes of borrowers locked into high rates?
d.  Not disclosing the changing nature of their legal liability exposure by disclosing the Attorney General lawsuits and the racketeering lawsuits being filed against them regarding their home lending practices?
e.  Not disclosing their involvement in the regulated insurance business by both participating in the creation of an insurance product (the Tranche A’s “investment agreement”), not reporting the existence of the insured product by complying with insurance licensing and reporting requirements, not paying the associated premium taxes, and selling insurance without a license?
F)  Did the banks disclose to the relevant State banking regulators and State Court systems how they shifted their internal obligation for customer dispute resolution to State legal systems with no discussion as to who should bear the cost?
G)  In all discussions, do banks have an obligation to disclose that they are only acting as a fee-for-service vendor and are not acting as a principal and owner of a Promissory Note while interacting with Households?
H)  Do banks have the obligation to disclose that they are motivated to maintain the status quo for as long as possible for multiple reasons, contrary to the interests of the Homeowners?
I)  Are the duties of the Special Purpose Vehicle more than ministerial once they start directing foreclosure activity and procedure?  Does this jeopardize their tax status?
J)  Is the Index that is used to determine the banks’ loan cost-of-funds an arm’s length measure or a second profit center for their lending activities?
K)  Do the banks’ internal secret residential real estate valuation systems that necessarily undervalues property values via a reversion to an average need to be transparent to customers and brokers?  Or are banks allowed to rely on these arbitrary numbers in an uncontested manner to lower the amount of financing they make available to Households?

Barry Schmittou

March 20, 2012, 9:45 a.m.

Hi Symphony,

Thank you for wonderful comment and suggestion. I have been trying to get the evidence better organized; working on the computer increases my falls and accidents.

If a real Grand Jury ever receives the evidence I’ve compiled I pray they will do exactly what you suggest and “succinctly identify issues and their themes”

In 2005 I filed an Ethics complaint on Tennessee State Senator John Ford that was turned over to the State Attorney General and he referred it to the DOJ. Ford was indicted and convicted and recieved 13 years. 

For now, if an honest DOJ looked at the last two blogs I posted on the first comment and the associated links, and combined the evidence, then there should be many prosecutions.

The insurance companies ignoring life treatening conditions in multiple types of insurance should cause prosecutions including Obama and Bush’s failure to seek prosecution.

I pray that ProPublica will soon decide to cover the deadly insurance crimes like they are doing with the financial fraud. Many of the same players are involved since many insurance companies also have banks.

When I filed the complaint on State Senator Ford, the Senate called Ford’s crimes a technical error. There was a media firestorm and the public contacted many politicians. Without that my complaint would have been greatly minimized.

ProPubica and their PBS connections could easily take the evidence I’ve compiled and compose articles that would force Obama to actually do what he said at the Prayer Meeting :

“Make sure insurance companies aren’t discriminating against those who are already sick”

Then Obama immediately said “For me as a Christian, it also coincides with Jesus’s teaching to whom much is given much is expected”

I received a thank you from T.Christian Miller of ProPublica because I helped an injured war zone contractor named Marc Munro to call T. and provide evidence.

(An AIG investigator used a fake DOL criminal investigator badge and endangered the life of the contractor who saved lives during a car bomb blast in Iraq. Marc had his eardrums pierced, and he has PTSD, and the AIG investigator called him at 5am, asked if this is Marc Munro, hung up without identifying himself, and later he openly followed Marc and almost caused a car accident because he was driving on the wrong side of the road.

Symphony, my life is pretty much on fire but I try to have as much dignity as I can. I keep flinging out the evidence I compile in hopes of finding someone who will prevent many more lives from being destroyed like mine has been. I do greatly appreciate your suggestion. If you look at the Judges quotes regarding MetLife ignoring medical records that is linked in my first comment and Obama’s Director’s refusal to take action, and then would like to see more evidence please view :

This breakdown only serves to confirm my disappointment.  It really seems that Wall Street’s new modus operandi is to commit fraud and then simply pay a penalty for it.  The SEC settlements have been no different. 

As a legal matter, this settlement is quite suspect, because, as a matter of law, this settlement is not binding on individual homeowners.  To my knowledge, no homeowner or class of homeowners has actually joined this settlement. 

But, in order for this settlement to work, it would have to be enforced upon the homeowners who are planning on suing.  Could this be a large, tacit agreement by all the states and the feds that they will deny homeowners the right to relief in court?  This is what I fear it is exactly.

So, the next person that goes to court because these banks have fraudulently foreclosed upon them, I think we will find state judges (because property law is state law) kicking them out of court on the basis that they have already settled the claim. 

Just more evidence of who owns this country…

Sam, Your point is valid.  This political maneuvering is of great concern.  Thanks.

Barry, and I imagine that Ms. Currier would prefer that we remain on topic, there is no health wellness or health maintenance medical system in the USA.  The health insurance providers are just “insurance” operations that many incorrectly think provide medical advice.  They do not.  They only create policies and implement reimbursement for those medically covered treatment, right or wrong, that adheres to what they think is reasonable per their contract. The health insurance companies and the pharmaceutical drug industry do not have any contractual obligation to patients, unlike doctors who, I believe, still pledge themselves to some Hippocratic oath.

Barry Schmittou

March 20, 2012, 12:08 p.m.

Thank you Symphony,

Please see how Dr. Greenhood ignored Multiple Sclerosis of Jacquelyn Addis and a foot that new mother Joanne Vick broke in five places as evidenced in the Judges quotes seen at :

He also ignored my eye cancer symptoms and then MetLife concealed his reports as evidenced in the last quotes seen at :

I appreciate your thoughts about being on topic. I believe it’s all very connected as evidenced by Bill Moyers quote on PBS :

“How did politics create a winner-take-all economy? This was an inside job, politically engineered by Wall Street and Washington working hand-in-hand, to turn the legend of Robin Hood on its head: giving to the rich and taking from everybody else. It’s all on the record.”

The mortgage settlement and associated crimes are a sophisticated corporate mafia “inside job” too. So are the insurance company crimes against very sick and dying patients. So is Obama’s protection of them while he mentions stopping these exact crimes at the National prayer Meeting.

I love the stories seen on ProPublica.

If ProPubica and their PBS connections followed their mission statements they could easily take the evidence I’ve compiled and compose articles that would force Obama to actually do what he said at the Prayer Meeting :

“Make sure insurance companies aren’t discriminating against those who are already sick”

This Settlement does not waive an individual homeowner to file suit.  They may still file suit on their own in addition to the settlement.

Thank You!!!

@ Ann

Yes, that is the way it’s supposed to work.  However, one must consider why the banks would settle with the State AGs in the first place, if it isn’t going to preclude further actions by homeowners?  My argument is that it doesn’t make sense for them to do so when their exposure to individual homeowners is perhaps 10 to 100 times what the settlement amount is.

Sam in Texas,
I’m viewing that settlement as a strategic attempt to deceive the larger public.  Whether or not the settlement relieves even a small part of the harm done by the banks, it gives the public the fake impression that something is happening.  Much worse, it keeps Federal and State Regulators off guard.  They will accept the actions of the bank’s as a “good intention” and come to the defense of the banks.  The Regulators will say that it is “too disruptive” on the economic system to demand more.  As such, they will stay on the sidelines and not side with those few who will demand reparations from the banks.  within this environment, the Regulators will say that ot is okay to let harm happen to a few for the “greater good.” 

To develop an analogy, the Regulators who supervised saddle making during horse riding days did nothing to encourage the development of the stagecoach.  The same can be said for the stagecoach regulators when trains came on the scene… cars, planes, etc..  The inevitable conclusion is that the banks are no longer ” too big to fail” they have become “too large to function.” The banks’ supervisory structure has no more effect.


I completely agree with your view.  I guess what I was suggesting was that there might be something larger afoot as well.  I think you are correct, and as far as I can tell, those state and federal regulators completely failed circa 2005-2008, at the height of the subprime mess.  But, traditionally, as Ann stated, homeowners can still have their day in court.  However, I fear that this settlement may be a signal that this is perhaps a tacit agreement to foreclose those individuals’ rights as well.

As you can tell from my handle, I live in Texas, and all our judges are elected down here.  Not to mention they are predominantly Republican, and if they’re Democrats, then they tend to come from very large law firms that represent large corporate interests, including the very banks that are involved in the settlement. 

I used to think that there could not be such a large “conspiracy” between so many actors, but with Citizens United and the take over of corporate cash in our politics, I would not be surprised in the least if this is actually what’s going to happen: an agreement by state judges to tacitly deny individual homeowners their day in court in exchange for campaign contributions. 

Our Texas Appellate Courts and Supreme Courts are overrun with Republicans that choose to bend the law to the needs of their biggest campaign contributors on a weekly basis (by the way, don’t ever go against Exxon in Texas).  I don’t think it’s a stretch to think that Bank of America and Company are already lining the campaign coffers of these state judges as we speak, in exchange for overturning and deny any relief to homeowners wronged by the “too big” banks.

Sorry for the long commentary.  I’m really happy to see people are still talking about this, because unfortunately the media seems to have moved on, and I fear this is yet another “fast one” that is being pulled on the American People.

Hi Sam in Texas.  I’m in Connecticut.  Our Connecticut court system had to increase the number of bank foreclosure/dispute cases against residents with less revenue delivered from the banks.  There is less revenues from the nationally chartered banks in Connecticut because these banks have outsourced their dispute resolution centers to operations outside Connecticut (e.g to Texas, California, and Arizona and other important Congressional districts) where they will use it to influence legislation.  The practical problem this generates is that their outsourced operations are unfamiliar with local rules, regulations, norms, and privacy requirements.  As such, and with this structure, the deck is immediately stacked against the unsophisticated homeowner and a court system (Judges and Lawyers) that feel overwhelmed and underinformed about the securitization process.

One problem with the whole supervision process is that no consumer group is focusing on the fact that many classes of homeowners across the nation have way overpaid their banks on their existing mortgages because the banks used their monopoly power to just change their underwriting standards, or whatever other new excuse they create to collect more from consumers.  It seems we as a nation have developed amnesia towards the abuses associated with monopoly power and its bad consequences.

@Symphony Music- The last paragraph in your latest post is exactly what is/has happened.


That’s interesting; I didn’t know that a lot of the dispute resolution had been outsourced from CT.  But, I guess that makes sense, given CT’s proximity to Wall Street (physically).  It would seem, from your comment, that these banks are actually twice screwed: once because of their own ridiculously complex securitization processes, and second by the fact that they didn’t understand that each state’s property laws control what they can do.  And, in an effort to sidestep, they are now using their monopoly campaign contribution power to sweep this all under the rug. 

I’m all for the rule of law, and the rule of law demands that the Sherman Antitrust and Clayton Anticompetitive Practices Acts be enforced against, not only these banks, but a whole host of greedy “too big” corporations: GE, Comcast, United Airlines, AT&T, Microsoft, Google, Time-Warner, and Exxon, to name a few.

This article is part of an ongoing investigation:
Foreclosure Crisis

Foreclosure Crisis: Banks and Government Fail Homeowners

Banks and the government have fallen short in helping homeowners in danger of foreclosure.

The Story So Far

Systemic failures at the country’s banks and mortgage servicers have exacerbated the most severe foreclosure crisis since the Great Depression, and government efforts to limit the damage have fallen short. ProPublica created an unrivaled database of homeowners who have faced foreclosure, opened a Facebook page to encourage homeowners to share their stories, wrote profiles of some of them, and incorporated their experiences into our reporting. We also provided a comprehensive rundown of the numbers behind the crisis.

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