Journalism in the Public Interest

Mumbai Attacks Renew Questions About Pakistan’s Crackdown on Militants

Despite international pressure on Pakistan, most of the suspected masterminds behind the last major attack on Mumbai remain at large.


Indian security personnel and investigators gather at a bomb blast site in the Dadar District of Mumbai on July 13, 2011. (Sujit Jaiswal/AFP/Getty Images)

Indian investigators are only beginning to sift through the wreckage of three terrorist bombings in Mumbai today. Suspicions have immediately turned to Pakistan-connected militant groups. Whatever the investigation uncovers—and it's still very early—one thing is clear: Those groups still operate despite international pressure on Pakistan after the Mumbai attacks of nearly three years ago.

Today's coordinated rush-hour explosions, which killed at least 20 and wounded more than 100, were smaller and less sophisticated than the meticulously planned strike on Mumbai in November 2008. During that three-day rampage by the Lashkar-i-Taiba militant group, 10 gunmen targeted Westerners and Jews, killed 166 people and left India and Pakistan at the brink of war. Testimony at a recent court trial in Chicago revealed that officers of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate, or ISI, helped Lashkar fund and plan that maritime assault on Mumbai. Commando-style raids are Lashkar's signature.

In contrast, initial reports indicate that today's attack involved bombs planted in strategic locations, a recurring tactic used by Indian affiliates of Lashkar in recent years. In 2006, bombs planted on suburban Mumbai trains killed more than 200 people. Authorities blamed the Students Islamic Movement of India, which, along with another group, the Indian Mujahadeen, has been trained and directed by Lashkar and elements of Pakistani intelligence, according to Indian and Western counterterror officials.

"These groups still have the capacity to strike not just in Mumbai but around the country," said an Indian counterterror official.

The counterterror official and other experts said that while the investigation has just begun, it is likely that Lashkar, a close ally of Pakistani security forces, played a direct or supporting role in today's attacks.

Pakistan arrested Lashkar's military chief and a few other suspects in the 2008 case, but their trial has stalled. Although the United States and Indian governments have pressed Pakistan to dismantle Lashkar and other militant groups, most of the suspected Mumbai masterminds, including veteran Lashkar chiefs and a major in the ISI, remain at large.

Pakistani officials refuse to pursue those suspects, who have been identified publicly, according to U.S. counterterror officials. The major in the ISI and three Lashkar chiefs have been indicted by U.S. prosecutors for the deaths of six Americans in Mumbai. Western and Indian intelligence officials have warned in recent months that Lashkar remains intent on attacks in India and on Western targets.

"That whole crew from the 2008 Mumbai attacks is still sitting there," said Praveen Swami, a journalist at The Hindu newspaper and a respected national security analyst, in a telephone interview today from Delhi. "They haven't done anything big since then. This could be a testing of the waters. It's worth remembering that there were a number of smaller attacks in the buildup to Mumbai."

Recent smaller bombings have included a blast at a bakery frequented by Westerners, which killed 17 in the city of Pune last year. That attack probably had Lashkar links as well. David Coleman Headley, a confessed Lashkar and ISI operative who pleaded guilty to scouting targets for the 2008 Mumbai attack, also conducted reconnaissance in Pune, according to his testimony during the recent trial in Chicago. Headley did that scouting for Lashkar defectors who had joined al-Qaida, an evolving trend that has affected Indian Islamic militants as well and could be relevant to today's attacks, Swami said.

Headley's revelations led to the unprecedented U.S. indictment of the suspected ISI major, another flashpoint in the escalating conflict between the United States and Pakistan since the slaying of Osama Bin Laden in a Pakistani garrison town. During the past week, Pakistani leaders criticized the Obama administration for accusing the ISI of involvement in the murder of a Pakistani journalist and withholding $800 million in military aid.

Today's attacks could also turn out to be part of that shadow-conflict. The ISI uses militant groups as a weapon to strengthen its position in the dangerous triangle of Pakistani relations with the United States and India, according to Western and Indian counterterror officials.

Pakistan has denied any role in terrorism. Pakistani leaders issued public statements today condemning the bombings in Mumbai.

Richard Schmidt

July 13, 2011, 3:26 p.m.

The ISI strikes again. Makes one wonder when/if Pakistan will ever join the society of enlightened nations. By the looks of it, maybe never, which is why they will remain a thrid world nation, while India becomes one of the leading industrialized societies.

yea yea blame pakistan for your own failure . idiots. support from pakistan wth man. why cant india arrest the terrorist within its own land first who are planting these bombs then ISI would have nobody to support.

Sebastian… dude why are you so racist against Pakistan. Every time you write, you are biased. Why dont you write about Americans funding these jihadi people at the first place in 1980s during cold war. Maybe you are scared that CIA will kill you in a drone attack….

Investigations have only just begun, and conspiracy theories against Pakistan have already started to take shape. What does the author want to hint at anyways? Has he got the slightest proof that Pakistan is even remotely related to today’s attacks? This is the kind of article one would expect in a 50p tabloid, full of faulty information dubbed as ‘information from reliable sources’, which basically means some far-fetched report off some second-rate newspaper.

I find this squabbling absurd about who is to the blame for Mohammedan terrorism in South Asia. The US introduced fanatical Mohammedan ideology in Pakistan under Zia ul Haq and organized, trained and financed Mohammedan terrorists in Afghanistan in order to bring down the Communist government in the 1980s. But these American crimes do not exonerate India from combating terrorists in India nor do they excuse the fact that Pakistan is now one of the world’s foremost state perpetrators of terrorist crimes, together with other Mohammedan outlaw nations like Saudi Arabia and Iran.

In contrast terrorism committed by the US government doesn’t play such an important role in its foreign policy, because the US can afford to openly invade foreign countries with its uniformed armies, which isn’t classified as terrorism (nor should it be).

Pakistan used to start a war against India every five years, but after it lost 6 or 7 consecutive wars Pakistan prudently switched to terrorism, which is cheaper and causes less embarrassment for Pakistan because the government simply disavows ISI’s terrorist campaigns, which you can’t do, say, with an armored brigade.

But I think the main point is the lesson drawn by the Danish expert on Islam, Tina Magaard, who studied the holy books of a dozen religions for her dissertation at the Sorbonne and found the Koran to be the most violent and sadistic of all holy books. 

So it’s not really a terrorism problem at all.

It’s an Islam problem.


July 13, 2011, 6:04 p.m.

Open discussion is necessary but some of the off tangent, incoherent posts above are belittling to the seriousness of the subject matter.* This attack has once again killed civilians in a city that has become a frequent target for Islamic Terrorists. In light of that, it is not surprising for initial reactions to look across the border. I recall watching the Pakistani Ambassador to the UK, during the 26/11 attacks, on the BBC informing viewers that since the attackers were ‘of a facial complexion unlike pakistanis’ they must be from elsewhere. He went on to suggest the attackers may be ‘Christians seeking revenge for recent riots in the Eastern Indian State of Orissa’. (He still serves in that post, the BBC really didn’t take him to task on that absurd comment at the time, in fact much of their initial coverage was propounding domestic terrorists). Notwithstanding the reporting during the last attack in Mumbai- India’s lack of true law enforcement capacity in training it’s policemen/women for a variety of basic tasks or, in this case, conducting forensic analysis (just watch the cops corrupt the scenes of the explosions) and dismal inability to collate evidence in a manner befitting the due process of law is embarrassing. As unlikely as this might seem, we must acknowledge, it would not be difficult for an unknown group with its own agenda to capitalize on creating mayhem in a fluid situation. After-all, we might be wise to recall, the Police had initially claimed to have solved the Germany bakery Blast in Pune by arresting a certain Muslim- only to find his family providing footage of their main ‘suspect’ at a large wedding function attended by 200 people at the time he was allegedly conducting the attack. Bottom line for India is this- The ISI may not be an organization we can influence much, yet one hopes we can influence the Indian Police to do a better job. Do I believe the State has the Political Will to do so? That’s another discussion, suffice to say for now, post the train blasts five years ago- the cops were forced to go slow as their bosses- the elected Politicians- came under fire from their muslim constituents…. It’s complicated in India.

“Pakistan used to start a war against India every five years, but after it lost 6 or 7 consecutive wars Pakistan”

IGOR in what world your living son. there has only been 3 wars in which 2 were statemate and one which was a civil war. pakistan has no problems with india except its refusal to hold elections in kashmir to see what people want there. end of story. this terrorism is only diverting people from the real issue and in effect bringing a bad name to kashmiri struggle. now a sane person would know that pakistan or a kashmiri wouldnt want that.

Only india is benefitting from it at the expense of there own civilians.

The fact is India is good to take care of its security. If it takes care of its security, why need to bother the source of attackers. They are more involved in scams, fast unto death, corruption and other ‘designed to fail’ substances. They have the cheapest family driven television news channels who fritter the dirt and decay and surround the air with filthy smell. Totally cheap baseless reporting they do.
Pakistan or INdia or US are not reasons but some poor easily deceivable individuals who are not in a position to make their ends meet. After 2008 now three years orver, why cant India improve the security of its land people. Anarchy and cheap press is the reason and nothing else.

role of Hindutva groups should also be considered, here is one such analysis to keep things in perspective:

“there has only been 3 wars in which 2 were statemate and one which was a civil war.”

Amin-bhai, one understands the constraints of being a product of the Pakistani education system, but keep in mind that the majority of the people visiting a non-Pakistani website tend to be a bit more educated about historical facts.

A small primer in history, for your beefit.

1947 war: probably the stalemate you speak of, with the UN stepping in (a historical blunder by Nehru), with India retaining 2/3 of the Kashmir Valley, and the Line of Control drawn.

1965 war: Indian infantry was in control of over 720 sq miles of Paki territory, and within sighting distance of Lahore’s international airport when hostilities ceased.

US Library of Congress: ‘Most Pakistanis, schooled in the belief of their own martial prowess, refused to accept the possibility of their country’s military defeat by “Hindu India” and were, instead, quick to blame their failure to attain their military aims on what they considered to be the ineptitude of Ayub Khan and his government.’

TIME Magazine: ‘Severely mauled by the larger Indian armed forces, Pakistan could continue the fight only by teaming up with Red China and turning its back on the U.N.’

BBC: ‘The defeat in the 1965 war led to the army’s invincibility being challenged by an increasingly vocal opposition. This became a surge after his protege, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, deserted him and established the Pakistan People’s Party.’

1971 war: Ended with the surrender of Paki troops in East Pakistan, and the creation of Bangladesh. Approximately 90,000 Pakistani prisoners of war. “Civil War” indeed. Let’s not even get into the genocide perpetrated by Pakistani soldiers on the Bengali population of East Pakistan which led to this war.

1999 war (Kargil): Ended with the Pakistani PM rushing to Washington to stop the Indians from further mauling his forces, and Pakistani troops retreating back over the Line of Control. Those interested in facts and figures can find reams upon reams of official records all over the internet.

In 1947, muslims in the Indian sub-continent chose to split into two groups.

After six decades, the groups have opposite trajectory: a group is America’s enemy #1 [1] despite being among the top recipients of American aid [2, 3].

[1] The Double Game
The unintended consequences of American funding in Pakistan.
By Lawrence Wright | The New Yorker

[2] Sixty years of US aid to Pakistan: Get the data By Claire Provost | The Guardian

[3] What has America done for Pakistan? By Harris Bin Munawar | Dawn

Ye paakistaan nahi sudherega

Priyali: “The elected Politicians came under fire from their muslim constituents.”

Indians who cross over into Pakistan legally are being lured into becoming spies and work for Pakistan agencies.

Every person crossing into Pakistan has to go through certain routine checks at a police station on the border. There are 12 police stations on the India-Pakistan border, and have officials from the ISI, who conduct the ‘routine’ questioning.

After the officials conduct a thorough background check and grant permission to enter the country, they make the ‘offer’.

Khan had gone to Pakistan to meet his relatives. At one of these centres, the relatives were brought in to convince Khan to take up this assignment.

However, after he refused to do so, he was taken to a chamber where an ISI official after one round of trying to convincing him, resorted to threat tactics. Khan had not much of a choice.

“The question of agreeing and then returning to India and not following orders does not arise, since they have our relatives under their control”.

There could be as many as 5,000 such persons across the country working for ISI.

Has the ISI resorted to recruiting Indians as spies?

This article: The ISI uses militant groups as a weapon to strengthen its position in the dangerous triangle of Pakistani relations with the United States and India.

Pakistan has denied any role in terrorism.
The Afghan Taliban, crossed into Pakistan in the face of American military pressure in late 2001 and 2002, just as their forebears did in the 1980s.

Today, the remnants of the original Taliban leadership are based in and around Quetta and are known as the Quetta Shura Taliban, while the Haqqani Network operates out of North Waziristan, and the Hezb-i-Islami faction headed by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar is based in Bajaur.
Thousands of Taliban slogans cover the walls in and around the dusty frontier town of Kuchlak, some 14 kilometers northwest of Quetta. The area’s mosques and madrassas are packed with insurgents in need of temporary lodging as they head back to Afghanistan. Way stations have been set up all over the region in rented houses and swarms of Taliban pass through town on motorbikes every day.

Most carry Pakistani national identity cards. They’re enjoying the hospitality of the ‘black legs’ [derogatory slang for the ISI].

Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir - Mullah Omar’s second in command - and his men are operating with impunity in the high-desert landscape of southwestern Pakistan’s Baluchistan province and its hardscrabble capital city, Quetta. The Pakistani military has declared the province off-limits to US Predator strikes, and ISI seems to be giving the Taliban a free hand. They are coming and going in groups without end. Whatever the Taliban is doing is supervised and monitored by the [Pakistani] intelligence agencies. Old hands among the insurgents say it reminds them of 1980s Peshawar, where anti-Soviet mujahedin operated openly with the ISI’s blessing and backing.

Zakir is taking full advantage of his freedom.

Zakir paid one of his surprise visits recently at a dirt-floored house in the crowded Quetta suburb of Pashtunabad. The senior intelligence officer was meeting with a dozen other commanders and intelligence agents when a pack of motorcycles roared up and Zakir walked in and quickly got down to business, asking what they needed to make their forces more lethal. The military chief was ready for the group’s requests, promising to send cash, explosives experts, and suicide bombers.
Mohammad Zia ul-Haq of Pakistan began redeploying Lashkar fighters to Kashmir because he feared that Kashmiri independence groups might create a separate state in the mountainous region now controlled by India, rather than weld it to Pakistan. The ISI continued to nurture Lashkar, along with others, as a counterweight to the separatist groups.

Pakistan’s security establishment has nurtured Lashkar for years as a proxy force to attack targets and enemies in India and in the Indian-controlled part of Kashmir.

The group has set up sophisticated networks throughout Asia to train dozens of sleeper operatives for attacks in India.

In Thailand, for instance, Muslim recruits arriving from India are handed fake Pakistani passports for travel to Pakistan, where they go for several weeks of training. After the training, the operatives go back to Thailand, reclaim their Indian passports and return to India.

This artricle: While the investigation has just begun, it is likely that Lashkar, a close ally of Pakistani security forces, played a direct or supporting role in today’s attacks.
The initial assessment of intelligence agencies is that these latest attacks in Mumbai too have the stamp of the Indian Mujahideen (IM), which is a well-known front for the Pakistani Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).

The IM was set up as part of the LeT’s so-called Karachi Project around 2002-03 to create a fifth column of jihadis in India who could aid and carry out terror attacks at the direction of the hardliners in the Pakistani establishment. This would allow Pakistan to evade responsibility for such attacks. David Headley too has, in his confessions to the FBI, confirmed this terror link.

Their aim is to target India’s economic rise and its cities, which remain crowded, chaotic and vulnerable.’s-welcome-shock-therapy/
Hamid Gul, former ISI Director-General: Inciting domestic unrest in India was equivalent to Pakistan’s having two extra divisions.
The IM was more than just an armed Indian student group. Its birth was midwifed by the LeT and Harkat-ul-Jihad-Islami Bangladesh, as well as organized crime networks linked to Pakistan.

But it is no less important to understand that the group has flourished by plugging itself into transnational jihadi networks, enjoying the patronage of Pakistan-backed groups like LeT, which in turn remain the most serious threats to regional stability. Pakistan doesn’t get off the hook so easily.

The IM’s all-Indian membership and leadership, and its presence across the country, would seem to suggest that it’s a purely domestic problem.

In other words, “homegrown” doesn’t necessarily mean “domestic.” LeT and its backers in the Pakistani state have every incentive to give their covert war against India an indigenous face. The Indian Mujahideen may have been born of India’s communalism, but it was weaned on the unrelenting militancy of a certain country to the north.
Indeed, it may well transpire that the three bombs that killed 17 people and injured 131 others were the work of an indigenous group of Islamists in retaliation for the recent arrests of their fellow members by the Indian authorities.

Even if that proves to be the case, though, it will not prevent blame for the attack from ultimately being laid at Pakistan’s door, with all the implications that will have for the country’s emerging status as a one of the world’s leading pariah states.

The tentacles of Pakistan-based terror groups, many of whom are linked to the country’s all-powerful Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), spread far and wide, even to parts of India, where they provide training instruction to local Islamist militants.

who are we fooling. A few people in Pakistan,a few in India benefit from this once a while attacks and some economic activity of US fishing in this part of the world make its people richer. what else. Even in India the symptoms of Pakistan has started. Judges feel they are come there to rule the country by getting into policies. that is what is happening in Pakistan both military chief and judiciary chief feels they are empowered by GOd to rule the nation.  A few media serves the plasma for these white and red blood coup cells.

saahil j=kabeer

July 26, 2011, 4:27 a.m.

Interesting posts, but a lot of them based on perceptions and misinformation fuelled by the half-baked articles such as the one under review. First of all, the author seems to have arrived at the conclusion that the ISI or Lashkar’s Indian operatives were behind the recent bombings in Mumbai. Well, neither the Indian govt nor the investigating authorities have come to that conclusion as yet. Indeed the Indian home minister warned journalists against speculations. Secondly, it’s been nearly three weeks and the police are still clueless as to who could have been behind the bombings. I cannot believe the article was published with so many inaccuracies. Now a post by Priya from Mumbai seemed really balanced until the last lines where she gave her expert comment that the elected politicians came under pressure from their Muslim constituencies which slowed down the investigations into the 2006 attacks. I wonder which newspaper she reads or does she? Hearsay and perceptions cannot be equated with facts. Here are the facts of the situation since 2006 train bombings: 13 Indian Muslims are being tried in a lower court in Mumbai, 14 Pakistanis are wanted by the police for their alleged role in the train bombings. The trial was delayed because the law under which they were arrested was challenged in Supreme Court. The trial is dragging on because the investigations are shoddy. Then 2008 attacks took place and then the ones two weeks ago. During these five years where did you hear Indian Muslim constituencies putting pressure on elected politicians to go slow on Muslims or trials? This must be a figment of your imagination. Before posting comments you should equip yourself with correct information. The fact of the matter is after 2006 bombings the police had rounded up 300 innocent Muslim civilians and beaten up black and blue before they were released for want of evidence. A few days after the new attacks a Muslim guy was picked up by the police and beaten up so much that he died a few hours later. Having an opinion is one thing but having an in-built bias against Muslims is quite another. Before calling Indian Muslims terrorists or traitors one should just go to the home ministry and take a look at the list of those who supplied classified information to Pakistan against money. Ninety-five percent of them are Hindus. Three percent sikhs and two percent Muslims. But hey I dont look at the list and count the traitors’ religion. I am not Priya. But just reverse the list, what if 95 percent of them were Muslims on the ist? Priya and people like her would have gone mad with rage. Lastly, terrorism has no religion. We saw that in Norway a few days ago. We saw that in Malegaon where Hindu terrorists were involved in killing Muslims and Samjhauta Express where again Hindu terrorists were involved or allegedly involved. So, let’s oppose terrorism by all fair means but refrain from Muslim-bashing. Hope common sense will prevail
The connections between the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and the Indian Mujahideen (IM) became evident after the arrest in 2005 of Sami Ahmad who revealed that he had established contact between UP-based IM cadre Fahim Ansari (arrested in February 2008) and the LeT.

Ansari’s narrative is revealing. He reached Pakistan via Dubai in 2005 and at the LeT’s Muzzafarabad base was put under the charge of Muzammil, the LeT commander in charge of operations in India. He went through a 21-day Daura Aam (basic combat course), followed by a rigorous three-month advanced Daura Khaas (specialized guerrilla tactics). After arriving in India, from November 28 to December 10, 2007 he stayed at the Sunlight Guest House in Mumbai, photographing and mapping the targets he had been shown in the LeT base for the 2008 Mumbai attacks, prominent amongst them being the Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Taj Mahal Hotel.

IM-LeT linkages are also evident from what has been termed as the “Karachi project”, which was conceived jointly by elements of Pakistan’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI) and the LeT in 2003. The idea behind the project was to utilize Pakistan-trained Indian operatives to carry out terror attacks in Indian cities. The details of this project came to light in 2009 when the Pakistani American David Coleman Headley revealed to the FBI that the founders of the IM, the Bhatkal brothers, Riyaz and Iqbal, were being sheltered at Karachi by the LeT.

Links with the LeT and the HuJi also point to the fact that cross border movement of cadres and arms appears easy with the help of false names and passports mostly of Pakistani origin. Ansari, for instance, entered India in 2007 from Nepal with a false Pakistani passport issued in Pakistan. The connection to HuJI is also alarming given the porous nature of India’s borders with Bangladesh. Another disturbing new fact that has emerged is the IM establishing linkages with the Taliban, as has been revealed to the police by a key arrested IM cadre, Danish Riyaz in June.
The Indian Mujahideen are believed to have been formed in 2008 as a front group created by the Pakistani-based Lashkar-e-Taiba and the Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami to confuse investigators. They have also been linked with the banned Students Islamic Movement of India, with some of its cadres derived from the local Indian population.

Apparently because of a concern that Indian intelligence officials were catching up with the Pakistani-based jihadi groups, the training was switched to Afghanistan. In order to unleash the current round of terror attacks, at least a dozen operatives were trained by the Taliban to orchestrate militant strikes in India.

The Taliban are growing increasingly hostile to India’s involvement in Afghanistan, which has included support to President Hamid Karzai, re-construction, infrastructure development and aid. New Delhi believes that an Afghanistan under Taliban rule extends the influence of Pakistan in the war-ravaged country, which is inimical to India’s interest, especially in reining in terrorism and militancy in Kashmir.
Ilyas Kashmiri’s 313 Brigade controls Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami Bangladesh (HuJI-B).

HuJI-B was angered following the arrest of its top leaders, including Sheikh Farid. Maulana Yeahia has now taken charge of the outfit. Yeahia received training in Pakistan in 1998 and, on his return to Bangladesh, joined HuJI-B. He is known to have been involved in the fighting in Afghanistan.

HuJI-B leaders and operatives – Maulana Sheikh Abdus Salam, who later floated a new outfit, the Islamic Democratic Party (IDP); Maulana Abdul Malek; Maulana Shawkat Osman alias Sheikh Farid; Mufti Shafiqur Rahman; Ratul Babu; and Indian national Abdul Majed Bhat associated with Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT).

The organization received financial aid from some 3,000-4,000 associates working in different countries of the Middle East.
Many groups have taken advantage of the global attention on Lashkar-e-Tayyeba, Tehrik-e-Taliban of Pakistan, and al-Qaeda to quietly expand their infrastructure and cadre, all with the blessings of the army and ISI.

One such group which was exposed recently was Harkat-ul Mujahideen (HuM), based quite close to Rawalpindi, for its involvement in sheltering al Qaida chief Osama bin Laden in Abbottabad. HuM is led by Fazlur Rahman Khalil, a close associate of Laden during the Afghan Jihad and one of the clerics who vowed jihad against the US. ISI splintered his group and created Harkat-ul Ansar and Jaish-e-Mohammad to do its bidding in Kashmir.

One of Khalil’s disciples and confidant was Masood Azhar who came out of Binori mosque in Karachi and launched himself into terrorist activities at the behest of ISI. Following his release from India in 1999 December, after he and two other terrorists, were swapped for the passengers of hijacked IC 814 airliner, Azhar set up Jaish-e-Mohammad, fully supported by the ISI. His handler was Brigadier Ijaz Shah, the ISI station chief of Punjab.

But being such a key asset, the ISI kept him sheltered in Bahawalpur, a major city near the Indian border which was developed by the army as a buffer zone. With the help of ISI, Azhar also set up a base in Peshawar after he set up few training camps in Dir and Upper Dir in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) in 2006 to train the Taliban cadres for the agency.
The origins of Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) can be traced to the efforts of Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, who now stands accused of masterminding the 2008 Mumbai attacks. He originally participated in the anti-Soviet jihad in Afghanistan and later joined forces with LeT’s current leader, Hafiz Mohammed Saeed. Both quickly turned attention to the festering dispute over Kashmir, and LeT was born.

From its inception, the organization enjoyed the patronage of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence directorate (ISI); ISI fashioned LeT’s training programs.

By the 1990s, it was clear that Pakistan couldn’t defeat its larger rival in a conventional war. Instead, it sought to repeat, against India, its strategy of arming the mujahideen in Afghanistan.

LeT has not just physically assaulted India; it has also spread a virulent ideology. From its headquarters in Muridke, a town near Lahore, it has built a vast network that covers much of the subcontinent. Using this network and drawing on the disaffection of some segments of India’s Muslims, the group has managed to establish a presence within India. It has worked closely with a shadowy, homegrown terrorist organization called the Indian Mujahideen, which is thought to be behind the Mumbai bombings last month.

LeT remains a potent force in what the ISI calls its “war of a thousand cuts” against India.
There is a lot of activity such groups carry out: they continue to circulate fake currency, smuggle arms and ammunition, carry out recruitments and build up terror modules across the country.

LeT has around 500 modules across India. While the big bosses are headquartered at Pakistan, the Gulf modules have been put in charge of setting up terror modules in India.

LeT has been looking more into their Kerala connections through the Gulf and are carrying out recruitments.

There has also been an increase in activity in Hyderabad and the ongoing problems in the area (like the Telangana crisis) have only helped these groups go about their job without being noticed.

Recruits have been sent outside the country for terror training.

The year 2010 alone saw fake currency worth Rs 3,200 crore circulate in India, while the overall amount since past ten years is a stunning Rs 1,200,000: every fifth Rs 1,000 currency note is fake.

LeT pumps in these notes through the Dawood Ibrahim network. The number of routes to smuggle in fake currency has increased and also the printing units in Pakistan have gone up.

The earlier routes that were being used to pump in fake currency into India were through Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. However, the reliance on countries like Thailand and Dubai has also increased.
Finances for LeT include implicit state support from Pakistan, including the transfer of large quantities of fake Indian currency.

The notorious Pakistan-based crime syndicate, D-Company, under the leadership of the mafia don Dawood Ibrahim Kaskar, has established a close operational relationship with LeT.

FICN Currency Of Terror
Shrideep Biswas | South Asia Terrorism Portal

Pak hand in fake currency racket a reality: NIA
Toral Varia | Rediff

Pak using fake notes to fund terror, India to raise issue at global forum
Vishwa Mohan | TNN

This article is part of an ongoing investigation:

Pakistan’s Terror Connections

The Mumbai terror attacks have revealed evidence of the extent of the ties of Pakistani intelligence to terrorist groups and the flaws in the U.S fight against Pakistan-based terror.

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